HGST HUH721212ALN600

Posted on February 3, 2019 with tags tech. See the previous or next posts.

New hard-drives! After many many years…

Due to life, I didn’t manage to do any more investigation on backup solutions, but after a long saga I managed to finally have 4 working new HDDs - model HUH721212ALN600.

These are 12TB, 4K sector size, “ISE” (instant secure erase) SATA hard-drives. This combination seemed the best, especially the ISE part; apparently the HDD controller always encrypts data to/from platters, and the “instant erase” part is about wiping the encryption key. Between this and cryptsetup, dealing with either a failed HDD or one that is to be removed from service should be a no-breeze.

Hardware is hardware

The long saga of getting the hard-drives is that this particular model, and in general any 4K hard-drives seem to be very hard to acquire in Switzerland. I ordered and cancelled many times due to “available in 3 days” then “in 5 days” then “unknown delivery”, to finally being able to order and receive 4 of them. And one to be dead-on-arrival, in the form of failing a short smart test, and failing any writes. Sent back, and due to low availability, wait and wait… I’m glad I finally got the replacement and can proceed with the project. A spare wouldn’t be bad though :)

Performance stats

Fun aside, things went through burn-in procedure successfully, and now the raid array is being built. It’s the first time I see mechanical HDDs being faster than the default sync_speed_max. After bumping up that value for this particular raid array:

md4 : active raid5 sdd2[4] sdc2[2] sdb2[1] sda2[0]
      35149965312 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/3] [UUU_]
      [=>...................]  recovery =  5.2% (619963868/11716655104) finish=769.4min speed=240361K/sec
      bitmap: 0/88 pages [0KB], 65536KB chunk

Still, it’ll take more than that value as the speed decreases significantly towards the end. Not really looking forwards to 24hrs rebuild times, but that’s life:

[Sat Feb  2 09:03:21 2019] md4: detected capacity change from 0 to 35993564479488
[Sat Feb  2 09:03:21 2019] md: recovery of RAID array md4
[Sun Feb  3 03:05:51 2019] md: md4: recovery done.

Eighteen hours to the minute almost.

IOPS graph:

IOPS graph
IOPS graph

I was not aware that 7’200 RPM hard-drives can now peak at close 200 IO/s (196, to be precise). For the same RPM, 8 years ago the peak was about 175, so smarter something (controller, cache, actuator, whatever) results in about 20 extra IOPS. And yes, SATA limitation of 31 in-flight I/Os is clearly visible…

While trying to get a bandwidth graph, I was surprised about fio not ending. Apparently there’s a bug in fio since 2014, reported back in 2015, but still not fixed. I filled issue 738 on github, hopefully it is confirmed and can be fixed (I’m not sure what the intent was at all to loop?). And the numbers I see if I let it run for long are a bit weird as well. While running, I see numbers between 260MB/s (max) and around 125MB (min). Some quick numbers for max performance:

# dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/null iflag=direct bs=8192k count=1000
1000+0 records in
1000+0 records out
8388608000 bytes (8.4 GB, 7.8 GiB) copied, 31.9695 s, 262 MB/s
# dd if=/dev/md4 of=/dev/null iflag=direct bs=8192k count=2000
2000+0 records in
2000+0 records out
16777216000 bytes (17 GB, 16 GiB) copied, 23.1841 s, 724 MB/s

This and the very large storage space are about the only thing mechanical HDDs are still good at.

And now, to migrate from the old array…

Raw info

As other people might be interested (I was and couldn’t find the information beforehand), here is smartctl and hdparm info from the broken hard-drive (before I knew it was so):

SMART:

    smartctl 6.6 2017-11-05 r4594 [x86_64-linux] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-17, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org
    
    === START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
    Device Model:     HGST HUH721212ALN600
    Serial Number:    8HHUE36H
    LU WWN Device Id: 5 000cca 270d9a5f8
    Firmware Version: LEGNT3D0
    User Capacity:    12,000,138,625,024 bytes [12.0 TB]
    Sector Size:      4096 bytes logical/physical
    Rotation Rate:    7200 rpm
    Form Factor:      3.5 inches
    Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
    ATA Version is:   ACS-2, ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
    SATA Version is:  SATA 3.2, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
    Local Time is:    Thu Jan 10 13:58:03 2019 CET
    SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
    SMART support is: Enabled
    
    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
    SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED
    
    General SMART Values:
    Offline data collection status:  (0x80)	Offline data collection activity
    					was never started.
    					Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
    Self-test execution status:      (   0)	The previous self-test routine completed
    					without error or no self-test has ever 
    					been run.
    Total time to complete Offline 
    data collection: 		(   87) seconds.
    Offline data collection
    capabilities: 			 (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
    					Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
    					Suspend Offline collection upon new
    					command.
    					Offline surface scan supported.
    					Self-test supported.
    					No Conveyance Self-test supported.
    					Selective Self-test supported.
    SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
    					power-saving mode.
    					Supports SMART auto save timer.
    Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
    					General Purpose Logging supported.
    Short self-test routine 
    recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.
    Extended self-test routine
    recommended polling time: 	 (1257) minutes.
    SCT capabilities: 	       (0x003d)	SCT Status supported.
    					SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
    					SCT Feature Control supported.
    					SCT Data Table supported.
    
    SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
    Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
    ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
      1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000b   100   100   016    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
      2 Throughput_Performance  0x0005   100   100   054    Pre-fail  Offline      -       0
      3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0007   100   100   024    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
      4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
      5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   005    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
      7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000b   100   100   067    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
      8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0005   100   100   020    Pre-fail  Offline      -       0
      9 Power_On_Hours          0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
     10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   060    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
     12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
     22 Unknown_Attribute       0x0023   100   100   025    Pre-fail  Always       -       100
    192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
    193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
    194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       30 (Min/Max 25/30)
    196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
    197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0022   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
    198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0008   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
    199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x000a   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
    
    SMART Error Log Version: 1
    No Errors Logged
    
    SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
    No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]
    
    SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
     SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
        1        0        0  Not_testing
        2        0        0  Not_testing
        3        0        0  Not_testing
        4        0        0  Not_testing
        5        0        0  Not_testing
    Selective self-test flags (0x0):
      After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
    If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

hdparm:

/dev/sda:

    ATA device, with non-removable media
    	Model Number:       HGST HUH721212ALN600
    	Serial Number:      8HHUE36H
    	Firmware Revision:  LEGNT3D0
    	Transport:          Serial, ATA8-AST, SATA 1.0a, SATA II Extensions, 
                            SATA Rev 2.5, SATA Rev 2.6, SATA Rev 3.0; 
                            Revision: ATA8-AST T13 Project D1697 Revision 0b
    Standards:
    	Used: unknown (minor revision code 0x0029) 
    	Supported: 9 8 7 6 5 
    	Likely used: 9
    Configuration:
    	Logical		max	current
    	cylinders	16383	16383
    	heads		16	16
    	sectors/track	63	63
    	--
    	CHS current addressable sectors:    16514064
    	LBA    user addressable sectors:   268435455
    	LBA48  user addressable sectors:  2929721344
    	Logical  Sector size:                  4096 bytes
    	Physical Sector size:                  4096 bytes
    	device size with M = 1024*1024:    11444224 MBytes
    	device size with M = 1000*1000:    12000138 MBytes (12000 GB)
    	cache/buffer size  = unknown
    	Form Factor: 3.5 inch
    	Nominal Media Rotation Rate: 7200
    Capabilities:
    	LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)
    	Queue depth: 32
    	Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, no device specific minimum
    	R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 2	Current = 0
    	Advanced power management level: 254
    	DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5 *udma6 
    	     Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns
    	PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4 
    	     Cycle time: no flow control=120ns  IORDY flow control=120ns
    Commands/features:
    	Enabled	Supported:
    	   *	SMART feature set
    	    	Security Mode feature set
    	   *	Power Management feature set
    	   *	Write cache
    	   *	Look-ahead
    	   *	Host Protected Area feature set
    	   *	WRITE_BUFFER command
    	   *	READ_BUFFER command
    	   *	NOP cmd
    	   *	DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE
    	   *	Advanced Power Management feature set
    	    	Power-Up In Standby feature set
    	   *	SET_FEATURES required to spinup after power up
    	    	SET_MAX security extension
    	   *	48-bit Address feature set
    	   *	Device Configuration Overlay feature set
    	   *	Mandatory FLUSH_CACHE
    	   *	FLUSH_CACHE_EXT
    	   *	SMART error logging
    	   *	SMART self-test
    	   *	Media Card Pass-Through
    	   *	General Purpose Logging feature set
    	   *	WRITE_{DMA|MULTIPLE}_FUA_EXT
    	   *	64-bit World wide name
    	   *	URG for READ_STREAM[_DMA]_EXT
    	   *	URG for WRITE_STREAM[_DMA]_EXT
    	   *	WRITE_UNCORRECTABLE_EXT command
    	   *	{READ,WRITE}_DMA_EXT_GPL commands
    	   *	Segmented DOWNLOAD_MICROCODE
    	    	unknown 119[6]
    	    	unknown 119[7]
    	   *	Gen1 signaling speed (1.5Gb/s)
    	   *	Gen2 signaling speed (3.0Gb/s)
    	   *	Gen3 signaling speed (6.0Gb/s)
    	   *	Native Command Queueing (NCQ)
    	   *	Host-initiated interface power management
    	   *	Phy event counters
    	   *	NCQ priority information
    	   *	READ_LOG_DMA_EXT equivalent to READ_LOG_EXT
    	    	Non-Zero buffer offsets in DMA Setup FIS
    	   *	DMA Setup Auto-Activate optimization
    	    	Device-initiated interface power management
    	    	In-order data delivery
    	   *	Software settings preservation
    	    	unknown 78[7]
    	    	unknown 78[10]
    	    	unknown 78[11]
    	   *	SMART Command Transport (SCT) feature set
    	   *	SCT Write Same (AC2)
    	   *	SCT Error Recovery Control (AC3)
    	   *	SCT Features Control (AC4)
    	   *	SCT Data Tables (AC5)
    	   *	SANITIZE feature set
    	   *	CRYPTO_SCRAMBLE_EXT command
    	   *	OVERWRITE_EXT command
    	   *	reserved 69[3]
    	   *	reserved 69[4]
    	   *	WRITE BUFFER DMA command
    	   *	READ BUFFER DMA command
    Security: 
    	Master password revision code = 65534
    		supported
    	not	enabled
    	not	locked
    	not	frozen
    	not	expired: security count
    	not	supported: enhanced erase
    	1114min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT.
    Logical Unit WWN Device Identifier: 5000cca270d9a5f8
    	NAA		: 5
    	IEEE OUI	: 000cca
    	Unique ID	: 270d9a5f8
    Checksum: correct